The definition used by the author and “researchers”;
“assertions unsupported by or contradicting U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance on COVID-19 prevention and treatment during the period assessed or contradicting the existing state of scientific evidence for any topics not covered by the CDC.”
There were literally times when the CDC and the WHO had different guidance posted.
Another GIANT red flag;
“Some others promoted unsubstantiated claims or conspiracy theories about the government or the origins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.”
What was labeled “conspiracy theory” is now considered the most viable theory.